Objective: Sex differences in the clinical outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary stenting should be assessed according to age.
Methods: We analyzed the clinical data of all patients with nonvalvular AF who underwent coronary stenting between January 2010 and June 2015 in 12 hospitals of Beijing, China.
Results: A total of 2,146 patients (71.8% men and 28.2% women) were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 66.6±9.4 years. Women in this study were older and had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and anemia. Smoking history was found to be higher in men, and women were less likely to be current smokers. The mean follow-up duration was 39.7 months. Women younger than 65 years had a remarkably higher mortality (11.2% vs. 5.3%, p=0.012) and a significantly lower rate of repeat revascularization (1.6% vs. 6.3%, p=0.034) than men. Female gender remained an independent predictor for all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR)=2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–3.79, p=0.025], along with heart failure (HR=3.64, 95% CI: 2.02–6.57, p<0.001) and CKD (HR=2.46, 95% CI: 1.09–5.57, p=0.031) after multivariate regression analysis. No significant difference was noted between men and women with regard to mortality, ischemic events, and major bleeding in elderly patients.
Conclusion: In Chinese patients younger than 65 years with AF and coronary stenting, female gender was independently associated with increased mortality; men were more likely to receive repeat revascularization possibly due to the current smoking. Whether it was a biological difference or a recognition disparity of the disease between men and women warrants further investigation.