Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the ability of native T1 mapping in the determination of myocardial fibrosis in patients with surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).
Methods: We included 35 patients with surgically corrected TOF who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in this study. Additionally, we added pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping sequences at the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and short-axis planes to the routine protocol. We visually evaluated the pre-contrast native T1 mapping images to determine the presence of areas with higher T1 times that indicate focal fibrosis. We compared the findings with the findings of post-contrast images.
Results: In 22 of the 35 cases, RVOT enhancement was observed in the delayed enhancement images; however, none of these cases could be distinguished on the native T1 maps. When compared to post-contrast imaging, 28 of the 30 contrast enhancements at right ventricle insertion points and 14 of the 17 contrast enhancements at the remaining left ventricle walls were visually observed on the color-coded native T1 maps. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of native T1 mapping for the detection of focal fibrosis at the right ventricle insertion points were found to be 93.3%, 100%, 100%, and 71.4%, respectively, whereas these values were found to be 82.4%, 100%, 100%, and 85.8% in the detection of fibrosis in the remaining left ventricle walls.
Conclusion: Native T1 mapping is valuable in the detection of focal fibrosis at the right ventricle insertion points and the remaining left ventricle walls; however, it was not possible to visually detect RVOT fibrosis by native T1 mapping. Hence, T1 mapping may not replace the contrast-enhanced imaging in patients with surgically corrected TOF.