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Stent thrombosis in acute coronary syndromes: Patient-related factors and operator-related factors [Anatol J Cardiol]
Anatol J Cardiol. 2020; 24(4): 274-279 | DOI: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2020.69679  

Stent thrombosis in acute coronary syndromes: Patient-related factors and operator-related factors

Martin Kamenik, Petr Widimsky
Cardiocenter, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Kralovske Vinohrady; Prague-Czech Republic

Objective: Stent thrombosis (ST) is a common phenomenon in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) when compared to stable coronary artery disease. This study analyzed the patient- and operator-related risk factors of ST in ACS.
Methods: Coronary angiograms of 1738 consecutive ACS patients admitted in a large tertiary center between year 2014 and 2016 were analyzed retrospectively for the presence of ST. The paired angiograms [ST in ACS during and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)] of the patients were analyzed by two independent observers, with focus on lesion characteristics and procedure techniques. Clinical and laboratory data were collected.
Results: Stent thrombosis was found in 29 (1.6%) ACS patients, with a combination of at least one clinical/laboratory risk factor and one lesion/operator risk factor identified in 28 (96%) out of the 29 ACS patients with ST. The following risk factors for ST were found: Renal insufficiency (OR=4.14, p<0.001, 95% CI=1.73-9.88), type 2 diabetes (OR=2.21, p=0.034, 95% CI=1.06-4.61), excessive alcohol consumption (OR=3.12, p=0.023, 95% CI=1.17-8.33), stent implantation for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (OR=2.28, p=0.029, 95% CI=1.08-4.81), left main (LM) or left anterior descending artery (LAD) as culprit lesion (OR=2.80, p=0.010, CI 95%=1.27-5.95), and absence of antiplatelet therapy prior to ST (OR=3.58, p=0.002, 95% CI=1.60-7.96). The following lesion/operator possible risk factors were identified: Bifurcation lesion (n=7; 24%), heavy coronary calcifications (n=13; 44%), in-stent restenosis with secondary plate rupture (n=6, 20%), inappropriate stent size selection (n=6, 20%), and errors in periprocedural drug administration (n=4, 14%).
Conclusion: ST occurred in 1/62 ACS patients after PCI. A combination of clinical/laboratory and lesion/operator risk factors were present in almost all ACS patients with ST. This finding may support the search for strictly individualized strategies for the treatment of ACS patients with ST after PCI.

Keywords: stent thrombosis, risk factors, acute coronary syndrome, antithrombotic treatment

Martin Kamenik, Petr Widimsky. Stent thrombosis in acute coronary syndromes: Patient-related factors and operator-related factors. Anatol J Cardiol. 2020; 24(4): 274-279

Corresponding Author: Martin Kamenik, Czech Republic

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