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Volume : 25 Issue : 1 Year : 2021
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Cannabis and tramadol addiction: Do they imply additive risk for acute myocardial infarction in adults younger than 45 years? [Anatol J Cardiol]
Anatol J Cardiol. 2020; 24(5): 316-325 | DOI: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2020.67206

Cannabis and tramadol addiction: Do they imply additive risk for acute myocardial infarction in adults younger than 45 years?

Hazem Mansour1, Mona Rayan1, Mina Shnoda2, Diaa Kamal1
1Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University; Cairo-Egypt
2Department of Internal Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital; Pennsylvania-United States of America

Objective: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the main cause of cardiovascular events worldwide. AMI commonly occurs in elderly patients because of atherosclerotic process related to common risk factors. Consequently, the rupture of atheromatous plaque with deleterious sequela is the common etiology of the disease. However, there are less studied etiological factors in youth compared with the usual population. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the risk profile of Egyptian youth presenting with AMI.
Methods: A study was conducted in 106 patients aged ≤45 years admitted with AMI in our university hospital to explore their clinical profile risk factors.
Results: In the study, 71 (67%) and 35 (33%) patients presented with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI). Anterior wall MI was predominant in 49 patients (46.2%). Moreover, 93 patients (88%) were smokers, 31 (29.2%) used tramadol, 43 (40.6%) smoked cannabis, 50 (47.2%) had poor sleeping habits, 29 (27.4%) had high stress levels, 37 (34.9%) had hypertension, and 22 (20.8%) had diabetes. Twenty (18.9%) patients had a family history of premature coronary artery disease. High and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were observed in 20 (18.9%) and 47 (44.3%) patients, respectively. The left anterior descending artery (LAD) was involved in 56% of the studied population associated with tramadol use. A significant association was found between both tramadol use and cannabis smoking and presence of heavy thrombus burden on coronary angiography.
Conclusion: AMI in Egyptian youth was predominantly observed in men, with anterior STEMI as the most common presentation. Cannabis and tramadol addiction were high risk factors for AMI in Egyptian youth.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, youth risk factors, cannabis, tramadol

Hazem Mansour, Mona Rayan, Mina Shnoda, Diaa Kamal. Cannabis and tramadol addiction: Do they imply additive risk for acute myocardial infarction in adults younger than 45 years?. Anatol J Cardiol. 2020; 24(5): 316-325

Corresponding Author: Hazem Mansour, Egypt