The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Original Investigation

Short stature is an independent risk marker for mortality and incident coronary heart disease only in women: a structural relationship?


Department of Cardiology, Turkish Society of Cardiology, Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul-Turkey


Clinic of Pediatric Cardiology, İstanbul Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Education Hospital, İstanbul-Turkey


Department of Public Health, Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul University, İstanbul- Turkey


Clinic of Cardiology, Siyami Ersek Center for Cardiovascular Surgery, İstanbul-Turkey


Clinic of Cardiology, Etlik İhtisas Education Hospital, Ankara-Turkey

Anatol J Cardiol 2012; 12: 289-297
DOI: 10.5152/akd.2012.091
Read: 200 Downloads: 144 Published: 01 July 2021

Objective: We evaluated the associations of short stature with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk or overall mortality, which vary with sex and ethnicity/race. Methods: Such associations were studied prospectively at a mean 13.5-years’ follow-up in a population-based sample of 3394 Turkish adults (mean age 44±11 years) using Cox proportional hazards models. Covariates of height were sought in sex-specific tertiles. Results: Height averaged 162.7±6.5 cm. Age-adjusted estimated marginal means for serum triglycerides, C-reactive protein and complement C3 in women (but not men) were significantly higher with decreasing height tertiles. In sex- and age-adjusted models, height was associated in men with neither incident CHD, nor death. In women, 1-SD increment (6.5 cm) in height only tended to marginal inverse association with CHD, but predicted significantly all-cause death (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.59-0.98); HR attenuated only marginally after further adjustment for family income bracket, smoking status, alcohol usage, systolic blood pressure, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- and non HDL-cholesterol. A threshold below 160 cm of female height doubled the adjusted risk of death compared to taller women. Conclusion: In contrast to men, short stature in Turkish women tends to be an independent risk marker for CHD, and height below 160 cm is a strong marker of death. Gender-specific early-life influences enhancing pro-inflammatory state may affect death and future CHD.

ISSN 2149-2263 EISSN 2149-2271