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Anatol J Cardiol: 20 (1)
Volume: 20  Issue: 1 - July 2018
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1.Pediatric and adult patients with pulmonary hypertension and a challenging case
Çetin Erol
PMID: 29952371  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.7  Page 1
Abstract | Full Text PDF

2.Effect of modified Blalock-Taussig shunt anastomosis angle and pulmonary artery diameter on pulmonary flow
Ahmet Arnaz, Şenol Pişkin, Gökçe Nur Oğuz, Yusuf Yalçınbaş, Kerem Pekkan, Tayyar Sarıoğlu
PMID: 29952372  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.54810  Pages 2 - 8
Objective: This study aimed to identify the best graft-to-pulmonary artery (PA) anastomosis angle measuring pulmonary blood flow, wall shear stress (WSS), and shunt flow.
Methods: A tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia computer model was used to study three different modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (mBTS) anastomosis angle configurations with three different PA diameter configurations. Velocity and WSS were analyzed, and the flow rates at the right PA (RPA) and left PA (LPA) were calculated.
Results: A 4-mm and 8-mm diameter of RPA and LPA, respectively with vertical shunt angle produces the highest total flow. In the RPA larger diameter than the LPA configutations, the left-leaning shunt produces the lowest total PA flow whereas in the LPA larger diameter than the RPA configuratios, the right-leaning shunt produces the lowest total PA flow. Therefore, the shunt anastomosis should not be leaned through the narrow side of PA to reach best flow. As the flow inside the shunt increased, WSS also increased due to enhanced velocity gradients.
Conclusion: The anastomosis angle between the conduit and PA affects the flow to PA. Vertical anastomosis configurations increase the total PA flow; thus, these configurations are preferable than the leaned configurations.

3.Analysis of gene copy number variations in patients with congenital heart disease using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification
Esra Tuba Mutlu, Hayrettin Hakan Aykan, Tevfik Karagöz
PMID: 29952356  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.70481  Pages 9 - 15
Objective: At the molecular and cellular levels, heart development entails the precise orchestration of genetic events such as the interplay of master transcriptional regulators, signaling pathways, and chromatin remodeling. Recent studies among patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have shown the importance of recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) in a significant number of patients. Recurrent CNVs that span several genes may affect other important organs, besides the heart. Because CHD may be the first presenting symptom in such patients, the analysis of recurrent CNVs in the genomic regions containing genes associated with CHD in patients referring to cardiology clinics may lead to an early diagnosis and the treatment of extracardiac symptoms in these patients. In this study, we aimed to screen CNVs of genomic regions including GATA4, NKX2-5, TBX5, BMP4, and CRELD1 genes and to analyse the 22q11.2 chromosomal region in apparently nonsyndromic patients with cardiac septal defects.
Methods: Genomic regions including GATA4, NKX2-5, TBX5, BMP4, and CRELD1 genes and the 22q11.2 chromosomal region were analyzed in apparently nonsyndromic 45 patients with cardiac septal defects using the MLPA P-311 A2 Congenital Heart Disease kit. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is an established technique for the detection of known CNVs. MLPA is substantially less expensive than array CGH and is relatively simple to use for clinicians without specific expertise in genomic technology; thus, MLPA could be used as a first-tier screening assay.
Results: We screened 45 patients with cardiac septal defects for CNVs using the MLPA P-311 A2 kit. We identified three CNVs (n=3/45, 6.66%) and three 22q11 deletions. The CNVs were confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Conclusion: Our study confirmed that the analysis of recurrent CNVs using the MLPA assay within pediatric cardiology clinics can led to an early syndrome diagnosis in nonsyndromic patients with CHD.

4.A descriptive analysis of abstracts presented at the Turkish National Cardiology Congresses between 2011 and 2015
Veysel Oktay, Ilknur Çalpar Çıralı, Ebru Serin, Vedat Sansoy
PMID: 29952357  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.94803  Pages 16 - 20
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the scientific publication performance of the abstracts presented at the annual Turkish National Cardiology Congress (TNCC) between 2011 and 2015 and to analyze the variables associated with publication.
Methods: The accepted abstracts of five congresses (2011-2015) were screened using the title and names of all authors in English via PubMed and Google Scholar databases. The parameters recorded included presentation type, publication rate, time to publication, affiliated institution, journal name and average impact factor, and average citation number per year for each publication.
Results: A total of 2897 abstracts (966 oral presentations and 1931 poster presentations) were accepted in five meetings and 23.4% (n=680) of these were published in national or international peer-reviewed journals. Of the published articles, 32.6% (n=222) were oral presentations and 67.4% (n=458) were poster presentations. The mean time to publication of oral and poster presentations were similar [9 (0-58) vs. 8 (0-62) months, p = 0.150]. According to the type of institution, university hospitals had the highest ratio of publication (58.6%) (p<0.001). All publications were published in 148 journals from 37 different countries. The average citation number of publications was significantly higher than the average impact factor of the journals [1.4 (0-30.1) vs. 1.29 (0.11-19.8), p<0.001].
Conclusion: Compared with other national-based literature in other medical fields, the overall publication rate was found to be similar while the time to publication was shorter. The significant difference between citation number and impact factor may be interpreted as positive indicator in terms of high level scientific value for cardiology publications presented in the TNCC.

5.Prognostic impact of renal dysfunction on long-term mortality in patients with preserved, moderately impaired, and severely impaired left ventricular systolic function following myocardial infarction
Lidija Savic, Igor Mrdovic, Milika Asanin, Sanja Stankovic, Gordana Krljanac, Ratko Lasica
PMID: 29952358  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.47701  Pages 21 - 28
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the prognostic impact of renal dysfunction (RD) at admission in patients with preserved, moderately impaired and severely impaired left ventricular systolic function following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Methods: We included 2436 patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Patients presenting with cardiogenic shock and those on hemodyalisis were excluded. According to the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), patients were divided in three groups: preserved left ventricular systolic function – EF >50%, moderately impaired – EF=40%-50% and severely impaired left ventricular systolic function-EF <40%. RD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73m2 at admission. The follow-up period was 6 years.
Results: Preserved, moderately impaired and severely impaired systolic function were found in 741 (30.5%), 1367 (56.1%) and 328 (13.4%) patients, respectively. RD was present in 105 (14.2%) patients with preserved systolic function, 247 (18.1%) patients with moderately impaired, and 120 (36.5%) patients with severely impaired systolic function.Regardless of the presence of RD, 6-year mortality rates in patients with preserved, moderately impaired, and severely impaired systolic function were 2.7%, 5.2% and 31.1% respectively. Within each LVEF group, patients with RD had a worse outcome, both in the short- and long-term. In the Mulivariate Cox Analysis, RD remained an independent predictor of 6-year mortality in patients with moderately (HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.54-3.78) and severely impaired systolic function (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.68-5.34), but not in patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.14-1.41).
Conclusion: Although patients with RD had higher 6-year mortallity following STEMI regardless of LVEF, RD at admission remained a strong independent predictor for 6-year mortality only in patients with moderately and severely impaired left ventricular systolic function.

6.Renal functions and prognosis in acute myocardial infarction. Concomitant left ventricular dysfunction should have been taken into account
Kaan Okyay
PMID: 29952359  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.03073  Page 29
Abstract | Full Text PDF

7.Clinical study of stand-alone transthoracic echocardiography-guided percutaneous occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus
Hua Cao, Qiang Chen, Gui-can Zhang, Liang-wan Chen, Fan Xu, Jia-xin Zhang
PMID: 29952360  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.90001  Pages 30 - 34
Objective: We aimed to investigate the feasibility and safety of stand-alone transthoracic echocardiography-guided percutaneous occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) without the use of X-ray equipment.
Methods: From January to December 2015, we performed stand-alone transthoracic echocardiography-guided percutaneous PDA occlusion using an occluder delivered via a delivery sheath introduced via femoral vein access without the use of X-ray equipment in 12 PDA patients.
Results: PDA occlusion was successfully performed in all 12 patients. The procedure duration ranged from 30 to 110 min (50.4±22.8 min), and the size of the implanted occluder ranged from 12 to 20 mm (15.2±2.8 mm). No occluder migration, residual shunt, or thrombotic complications were observed in the perioperative period. There was no clinical death, hemolysis, infection, or embolism during patients’ hospitalization and the follow-up period.
Conclusion: Stand-alone transthoracic echocardiography-guided percutaneous PDA occlusion without the use of X-ray equipment is a safe and effective procedure.

8.Pulmonary hypertension experience in an expert university hospital
Ümit Yaşar Sinan, Rengin Demir, Ismail Polat Canbolat, Mert Palabıyık, Ayşem Kaya, Mehmet Serdar Küçükoğlu
PMID: 29952361  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.60252  Pages 35 - 40
Objective: Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is characterized by remodeling of the small pulmonary arteries, leading to a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular failure. In this study, we aimed to share our 10 years of experience dealing with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and provide information in real-life settings in terms of demographics, clinical course, PH subgroup distribution, and treatment patterns in patients with PAH in a tertiary center.
Methods: In this retrospective, single-center, observational study, we screened the patients who applied to PH outpatient clinic of İstanbul University Institute of Cardiology due to the suspicion of PAH between 2008 and 2017. While group 1, 4, and 5 PH patients were included, group 2 and 3 PH patients were excluded from the study.
Results: Our study group comprised 162 patients (115 females, 71%). The female: male ratio was 2.4. The mean age was 52±16 years. Most (86.4%) of the patients were in group 1 PH (PAH). The rest (13.6%, n=22) of the patients were in group 4 PH (chronic thromboembolic PH). In group 1 PH, 45.7% of patients (n=64) were classified as having idiopathic PAH (IPAH) after excluding the alternative diagnosis using PH diagnostic algorithm. The remaining 54.3% of group 1 PH patients (n=76) had various diseases that caused PAH, which is called associated PAH (APAH); APAH group included PAH associated with congenital heart diseases (n=70), connective tissue disorders (scleroderma, n=4) and portal hypertension (n=2).
Conclusion: Our data provides important information in real-life settings in terms of demographics, clinical course, PH subgroup distribution, and treatment patterns in patients with PAH in a reference tertiary center in Turkey.

9.A retrospective study on children with pulmonary arterial hypertension: A single-center experience
Serdar Kula, Fatma Canbeyli, Vildan Atasayan, Fatma Sedef Tunaoğlu, Ayşe Deniz Oğuz
PMID: 29952362  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.78370  Pages 41 - 47
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) regarding epidemiological characteristics, clinical status with respect to the WHO functional class (WHO-FC), prognostic factors, and efficacy of medical treatment.
Methods: A retrospective evaluation of 41 patients with PAH was made in the Pediatric Cardiology Unit, Gazi University Medical Faculty, between February 2006 and October 2015.
Results: Of the 41 patients included in this study, 51.2% were female. The median age was 60 months at first evaluation. The median follow-up was 60 months. At the start of the treatment, 43.9% patients were receiving combined drug therapy, and this rate increased to 60.9% by the last evaluation. The median time of adding a new medication to the therapy was 20 months. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 94% and 86%, respectively. At the time of diagnosis, only pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) levels were associated with mortality (p=0.004), but at the last evaluation, 6-min walking test, proBNP and uric acid levels, and WHO-FC were also associated with survival (p=0.02, p=0.001, p=0.002, and p=0.05, respectively).
Conclusion: With current treatment choices in experienced centers, positive results are obtained with respect to the functional status and survival rates of patients with PAH. At the time of diagnosis, only proBNP had a prognostic value, whereas at the last evaluation, WHO-FC, 6-min walking test, proBNP, and uric acid were reported prognostic factors. For preventing rapid progression, determination of factors that have an effect on prognosis, in particular, is extremely important.

10.Clinical implications from the European Heart Rhythm Association consensus document on antiarrhythmic drug therapy
Emin Evren Özcan, Bülent Görenek
PMID: 29952363  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.03285  Pages 48 - 51
The recently published consensus document by the European Heart Rhythm Association presents a patient-tailored pharmacological antiarrhythmic treatment approach targeting the arrhythmia mechanism. This document comprehensively reviews the indications, side effects, and contraindications of antiarrhythmic drugs. In this paper, we reviewed novel treatment concepts offered by the consensus document.

11.Anemia in heart failure - from guidelines to controversies and challenges
Oana Sirbu, Mariana Floria, Petru Dascalita, Alexandra Stoica, Paula Adascalitei, Victorita Sorodoc, Laurentiu Sorodoc
PMID: 29952364  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.08634  Pages 52 - 59
Anemia associated with heart failure is a frequent condition, which may lead to heart function deterioration by the activation of neuro-hormonal mechanisms. Therefore, a vicious circle is present in the relationship of heart failure and anemia. The consequence is reflected upon the patients’ survival, quality of life, and hospital readmissions. Anemia and iron deficiency should be correctly diagnosed and treated in patients with heart failure. The etiology is multifactorial but certainly not fully understood. There is data suggesting that the following factors can cause anemia alone or in combination: iron deficiency, inflammation, erythropoietin levels, prescribed medication, hemodilution, and medullar dysfunction. There is data suggesting the association among iron deficiency, inflammation, erythropoietin levels, prescribed medication, hemodilution, and medullar dysfunction. The main pathophysiologic mechanisms, with the strongest evidence-based medicine data, are iron deficiency and inflammation. In clinical practice, the etiology of anemia needs thorough evaluation for determining the best possible therapeutic course. In this context, we must correctly treat the patients’ diseases; according with the current guidelines we have now only one intravenous iron drug. This paper is focused on data about anemia in heart failure, from prevalence to optimal treatment, controversies, and challenges.

12.Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with ticagrelor therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention
Samet Yılmaz, Oğuz Kılıç, Yalın Tolga Yaylalı
PMID: 29952365  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.47776  Pages 60 - 61
Abstract | Full Text PDF

13.Extreme example of early repolarization
Gökhan Altunbaş, Ertan Vuruşkan, Murat Sucu
PMID: 29952366  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.14265  Pages 61 - 63
Abstract | Full Text PDF

14.Electrocardiographic clues for understanding J-wave syndromes
Adrian Baranchuk
PMID: 29952367  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.09365  Page 64
Abstract | Full Text PDF

15.Inherited dilated cardiomyopathy in a large Moroccan family caused by LMNA mutation
Najlae Adadi, Fatima Zohra Radi, Najim Lahrouchi, Loubna Hara, Ilham Ratbi, Siham Chafai Elalaoui, Marielle Alders, Jamila Zarzur, Connie Bezzina, Abdelaziz Sefiani
PMID: 29952368  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.69639  Pages 65 - 68
Abstract | Full Text PDF

16.Rupture of noncoronary sinus aneurysm into the mitral anterior leaflet and the left ventricle
Qian Tong, Dianbo Cao, Chunyu Zhang
PMID: 29952369  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.80850  Page E1
Abstract | Full Text PDF

17.Chronic aortic pseudoaneurysm of aortic root with occluded right coronary artery after trauma: A case report
Honghua Yue, Xiaoli Qin, Tailong Zhang, Zhong Wu
PMID: 29952370  doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.36599  Pages E1 - E2
Abstract | Full Text PDF

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