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Anatol J Cardiol: 11 (5)
Volume: 11  Issue: 5 - August 2011
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1.What is the place of the Anatolian Journal of Cardiology in the World?
Bilgin Timuralp
PMID: 21733775  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.128  Pages 377 - 378
Abstract | Full Text PDF

2.The effects of acute and intermittent hypoxia on the expressions of HIF-1? and VEGF in the left and right ventricles of the rabbit heart
Demet Tekin, Ali Doğan Dursun, Metin Baştuğ, Gökhan Karaorman, Hakan Fıçıcılar
PMID: 21652295  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.104  Pages 379 - 385
Objective: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are involved in signaling mechanisms of cellular responses to hypoxia. These factors have been investigated in tissue samples by simulating different altitudes by changing the percentage of oxygen. We aimed first to evaluate the effect of normobaric, systemic hypoxia (11% O2) on HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA levels in the heart muscle; secondly, to compare the levels of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in the left and right ventricle muscles. Methods: In this experimental study, 33 New Zealand male rabbits were assigned to control, acute hypoxia (4 hours) and intermittent hypoxia (4 hours/day for 14 days) groups (n=11/group). Total RNA was isolated from right and left ventricles of the heart. The expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNAs were investigated by using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. The obtained data were compared by using ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: The results indicated that left ventricle VEGF mRNA expressions in both acute and intermittent hypoxia groups (1.08±0.15 and 1.03±0.19, respectively) were higher than that in the control group (0.88±0.15) (p=0.03). Hypoxia treatments did not significantly alter HIF-1α mRNA in both ventricles (p=0.60 and p=0.51 for left and right ventricles, respectively). Conclusion: Since systemic hypoxia results in induction of VEGF mRNA up-regulation only in left ventricle, it could be related to its higher metabolic activity and oxygen utilization. Hypoxia induced changes in the expression of HIF-1α mRNA may not be the only determining factor for HIF-1/VEGF pathway induction or the observed VEGF induction could be through other hypoxia sensitive pathways.

3.The psychometric properties of the Turkish version of Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS)
Emel Yılmaz, Erhan Eser, Cevad Şekuri, Hakan Kültürsay
PMID: 21652294  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.105  Pages 386 - 401
Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric properties of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS). Methods: This is a methodological cultural adaptation study. The MIDAS consists of 35-items covering seven domains: physical activity, insecurity, emotional reaction, dependency, diet, concerns over medication, and side effects which are rated on a five-point Likert scale from 1: never to 5: always. The highest score of MIDAS is 100.Quality of life (QOL) decreases as the score of scale increases. Overall 185 myocardial infarction (MI) patients were enrolled in this study. Cronbach alpha was used for the reliability analysis. The criterion validity, structural validity, and sensitivity analysis approach was used for validity analysis. New York Heart Association (NYHA) and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Functional Classifications (CCSFC) for testing the criterion validity; SF-36 for construct validity testing of the Turkish version of the MIDAS were used. Results: The range of Cronbach alpha values is 0.79-0.90 for seven domains of the scale. No problematic items were observed for the entire scale. Medication related domains of the MIDAS showed considerable floor effects (35.7%-22.7%). Confirmatory Factor analysis indicators [Comparative Fit Index (CFI)=0.95 and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA)=0.075] supported the construct validity of MIDAS. Convergent validity of the MIDAS was confirmed with correlation of SF-36 scale where appropriate. Criterion validity results was also satisfactory by comparing different stages of the NYHA and the CCSFC (p<0.05). Conclusion: Overall results revealed that Turkish version of the MIDAS are a reliable and valid instrument.

4.Ivabradine, a novel heart rate slower: Is it a sword of double blades in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy?
Mona Rayan, Mazen Tawfik, Ali Alabd, Amr Gamal
PMID: 21712169  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.110  Pages 402 - 406
Objective: To prospectively assess the safety and efficacy of ivabradine in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Methods: We included 35 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy with an ejection fraction (EF) <40% and heart rate >70 beats/min despite optimal medical therapy, according to the international guidelines in this prospective, non-randomized, single-arm, open-label safety study. Ivabradine was used as an add-on therapy to the maximally tolerated b-blocker in an increasing titrated dose till a target dose of 15 mg/day or resting heart rate of 60 beats/min for 3 months. During follow-up period the safety, patient tolerance and efficacy of this drug were assessed. All patients underwent 12-lead resting electrocardiography and Holter monitoring at inclusion and after 3 months. Statistical analysis was accomplished using paired t-test and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: We found a significant reduction in the resting heart rate by a mean of 25.9±9.4%, without a significant change of blood pressure. There was no prolongation of PR, QTc or QRS durations. Ventricular ectopic activity showed significant reduction (p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between the resting heart rate, NYHA and left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001 for both). One patient developed photopsia and decompensation was observed in another patient. Conclusion: Ivabradine is a safe and effective drug in reducing resting heart rate, improving NYHA functional class without undesirable effects on conduction parameters or ectopic activity.

5.Serum creatinine is independently associated with angiographic extent of coronary artery disease in patients with stable angina pectoris
Şule Korkmaz, Burcu Demirkan, Hakan Altay, Meltem Refiker Ege, Vedat Çaldır, Mehmet Birhan Yılmaz, Yeşim Güray, Ümit Güray, Hatice Şaşmaz
PMID: 21652292  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.107  Pages 407 - 413
Objective: Renal dysfunction has been shown to be linked to high risk for cardiovascular events. Even milder forms of creatinine elevation are associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. We designed a retrospective study and searched the association of angiographic extent of coronary artery disease and creatinine levels in patients without overt renal dysfunction. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 892 consecutive patients with typical stable angina pectoris (311 female with mean age of 62±10 years, 581 male with mean age of 56±11 years) at Türkiye Yüksek İhtisas Hospital and creatinine level ≤3 mg/dl without history of hemodialysis. Patients without overt renal disease were divided into 3 groups according to level of creatinine (Group A: Cr level <1.2 mg/dl, Group B: Cr level ≥1.2 and <1.5 mg/dl and Group C: Cr level ≥1.5 -≤3 mg/dl). Additionally after evaluation of coronary angiograms, patients were also classified according to those with high stenosis (stenosis score ≥16) and high extension scores (extension score >50%) versus low stenosis and low extension scores. Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the clinical predictors of high total stenosis and high extension scores. Results: Each group of patients according to level of creatinine showed marked difference in terms of angiographic extent of coronary artery disease (p<0.001). Those in the highest creatinine group (≥1.5 mg/dl, but not above 3 mg/dl) had the highest total stenosis (17±6, p<0.001) and extension (78±25, p<0.001) scores irrespective of age and gender. Creatinine was shown to be significantly correlated with both stenosis and extension scores. Age (OR: 1.035, 95% CI: 1.016-1.054, p<0.0001), being male (OR: 1.746, 95% CI: 1.135-2.685, p=0.011), presence of hypertension (OR: 1.507, 95%CI: 1.005-2.25 p=0.047), presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.865, 95%: 1.250-2.783, p=0.002), previous history of myocardial infarction (OR: 1.624, 95%CI: 1.094-2.413, p=0.016), wall motion score index (OR: 1.203, 95%CI: 1.108-1.305, p<0.0001) and creatinine (OR: 4.037, 95%CI: 2.530-6.443, p<0.0001) level were found to be independent predictors of high total stenosis score. Furthermore, age (OR: 1.042, 95%CI: 1.026-1.059, p<0.0001), being male (OR: 2.587, 95%CI: 1.794-3.731, p<0.0001), presence of hypertension (OR: 1.536, 95% CI: 1.100-2.147, p=0.012), previous myocardial infarction (OR: 6.183, 95%CI: 4.340-8.807, p<0.0001), total cholesterol/HDL ratio (OR: 1.215, 95%CI: 1.114-1.327, p<0.0001) and creatinine (OR: 3.814, 95%CI: 2.149-6.768, p<0.0001) were found to be independent predictors of high extension score. Conclusion: Serum creatinine seems to denote severity of angiographic extent of coronary artery disease in patients with typical chest pain.

6.Evaluation of the relationship between serum high sensitive C-reactive protein and the elasticity properties of the aorta in patients with coronary artery ectasia
İsa Sincer, Erdal Aktürk, Nusret Açıkgöz, Necip Ermiş, Mustafa Feridun Koşar
PMID: 21712171  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.108  Pages 414 - 420
Objective: Previous studies have shown an association between high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and arterial stiffness in most cardiovascular diseases. High sensitive C-reactive protein and arterial stiffness have been considered as independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hsCRP, a marker of systemic inflammation and aortic stiffness in patients with coronary artery ectasia (CAE). Methods: Our study was designed as cross-sectional study. Serum hsCRP levels and aortic stiffness parameters were measured in CAE patients (n=28) and age - and gender-matched control subjects (n=25). Serum hsCRP levels were determined by an immunonephelometry assay. Aortic strain (AS) and aortic distensibility (AD) were calculated from the aortic diameters measured using M-mode echocardiography and blood pressure obtained by sphygmomanometry. Independent samples “t” test, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Serum levels of hsCRP in CAE group were higher than in the controls (p<0.001). AS and AD were significantly decreased in CAE patients compared to the controls (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). There were negative correlations between hsCRP and AS (r=-0.862; p<0.001), and AD (r=0.852; p<0.001) and a positive correlation between hsCRP, and ASI (r=0.852; p<0.001). Conclusion: We have demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between serum hsCRP levels and aortic stiffness in patients with CAE. These findings may indicate an important role of hsCRP in the pathogenesis of impaired aortic stiffness in coronary ectasia.

7.Ischemic stroke history predicts increased cardiovascular mortality in chronic heart failure
Güliz Kozdağ, Mehmet Yaymacı, Pervin İşeri, Gökhan Ertaş, Ender Emre, Ulaş Bildirici, Teoman Kılıç, Dilek Ural
PMID: 21712170  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.109  Pages 421 - 427
Objective: To investigate comorbidities that predict cardiac mortality and re-hospitalization in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Methods: Five hundred eighty patients (mean age 63±13 years, 373 male, 207 female, mean ejection fraction (EF) 26±9%) with mild, moderate or severe CHF [NYHA class II-IV] were included in this prospective observational study. We evaluated all comorbidities such as history of ischemic stroke, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, chronic obstructive lung disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease in CHF patients who were hospitalized due to decompensated heart failure in Kocaeli University, Faculty of Medicine’s Hospital between January 2003 and July 2009. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to establish predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Results: Of 580 patients 207 (36%) patients died due to cardiovascular reasons. In multivariable Cox regression analysis age (HR-1.06, 95% CI 1.04-1.08, p<0.001), NYHA functional class (HR-3.20 95% CI, 1.90-5.41, p<0.001), history of ischemic stroke (HR-2.48, 95% CI 1.14-5.37, p=0.022), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (HR-1.09, 95% CI, 1.04-1.15, p=0.001), brain natriuretic peptide (HR-1.00, 95% CI 1.00-1.00, p=0.01) and hemoglobin (HR-0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99, p=0.038) were independent predictors of cardiac death in the present study. History of ischemic stroke was demonstrated as an important comorbidity that predicts cardiovascular mortality beyond other co-morbidities in CHF patients. NYHA functional class (HR-2.85, 95% CI 1.80-4.65, p<0.001), left ventricular EF [(HR-0.98, 95% CI 0.95-0.99, p=0.039) and ischemic stroke history (HR-2.41, 95% CI 1.15-5.05, p=0.019) were independent predictors for recurrence hospitalization. The stroke history was only predictor showing recurrent hospitalization at least in one year among the other comorbid conditions, which were evaluated during study. Conclusion: History of ischemic stroke may be an important risk factor for increased cardiac mortality and recurrence hospitalization in CHF patients.

8.Evaluation of association between obstructive sleep apnea and coronary risk scores predicted by tomographic coronary calcium scoring in asymptomatic patients
Alper Kepez, Elif Yelda Özgün Niksarlıoğlu, Tuncay Hazırolan, Mutlu Hayran, Uğur Kocabaş, Ahmet Uğur Demir, Kudret Aytemir, Lale Tokgözoğlu, Nasıh Nazlı
PMID: 21652293  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.106  Pages 428 - 435
Objective: This cross-sectional observational study is designed to evaluate direct effects of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) on presence and extent of coronary atherosclerosis by using tomographic coronary calcification scoring on a population asymptomatic for coronary artery disease. Methods: Ninety-seven consecutive patients (49.17±0.86 years) who were evaluated with sleep study for the suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome underwent tomographic coronary calcium scoring test. Cardiovascular risk factors, current medications and sleep study recordings of all patients were recorded. Patients were classified into 4 groups according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Linear and logistic regression analyses were used for assessment of association between variables. Results: Coronary risk scores of patients, assessed by tomographic coronary calcium scoring, were observed to increase linearly from simple snoring group to severe OSA groups (p=0.046). When patients were classified according to their gender, AHI and parameters reflecting severity of OSA-related hypoxia were found to correlate significantly with coronary risk scores of women but not with scores of men. Linear regression analysis revealed age as the only independent associated variable with cardiovascular risk scores assessed by tomographic coronary calcification scoring (Beta coefficient: 0.27, 95% CI 0.007-0.087, p=0.018). Binary logistic regression analysis also revealed age as the only variable which independently predicted the presence of coronary calcification (OR: 1.11, 95% CI 1.039-1.188, p=0.002). Conclusion: These results suggest that presence of OSA may contribute to coronary artery disease risk of patients in association with its severity; however, association between OSA and subclinical atherosclerosis seems to be primarily dependent on age.

9.The efficiency of cutting balloon angioplasty in the treatment of in-stent restenosis
Hacı Ateş, Hamza Duygu, Çayan Çakır, Halit Acet, Sefa Akdemir, Zehra İlke Akyıldız, Uğur Kocabaş, Cem Nazlı, Oktay Ergene
PMID: 21712168  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.111  Pages 436 - 440
Objective: Although stents reduce the restenosis rate, stent restenosis continues to be a major problem and the optimal treatment of stent restenosis is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the angiographic recurrent stent restenosis rate at 6-12 months after successful cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) for the bare metal stent restenosis. Methods: Thirty patients (mean age: 57.9±11.6, 22 males) undergoing successful CBA for the treatment of in-stent restenosis at our hospital were prospectively included in this study. Control coronary angiography was performed at 6-12 months after CBA. Lesion length, minimal lumen diameter (MLD), and reference vessel diameter were analyzed by computerized digital angiographic analysis. Recurrent restenosis was defined as the lesions obstructing the lumen more than 50%. We described the lesions shorter than 10 mm as to be focal and those longer than 10 mm as to be diffuse. We used Student t, Chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests for statistical analysis. Results: Two patients had two distinct lesions; therefore, 32 lesions were assessed. There were 9 (28.1%) recurrent restenosis on the control coronary angiography. Recurrent restenosis developed in 3/21 (14.3%) of focal type lesions and 6/11(54.5%) of diffuse type lesions (p=0.035). Pre-procedural MLD was lower in the restenotic group compared to non-restenotic group (0.41±0.29 vs. 0.64±0.17 mm, p=0.048) while percent of stenosis was higher in the restenotic group (76.8±12 vs. 69.6±5.37%, p=0.029). Conclusion: In the selected patients, CBA is an effective and a safe method for the treatment of bare metal stent restenosis. CBA might be considered as a first-line treatment method in patients with focal type lesions.

10.Cheatham-Platinum stent for native and recurrent aortic coarctation in children and adults: immediate and early follow-up results
Abdullah Erdem, Celal Akdeniz, Türkay Sarıtaş, Nurdan Erol, Fadli Demir, Ali Rıza Karaci, Yalım Yalçın, Ahmet Çelebi
PMID: 21712167  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.112  Pages 441 - 449
Objective: To present our institutional experience of endovascular Cheatham-Platinum stent implantation in children and adults with native and recurrent aortic coarctation. Methods: Between August 2007 and November 2009, 45 patients had aortic coarctation treated with 47 stents implantation. We preferred primarily stent implantation in adult patient with coarctation, in children more than five years-old it is preferred in cases of aneurysm, subatretic or blind coarctation and coarctation with patent ductus arteriosus or in restenosis. Files of stent-implanted patients were retrospectively analyzed in terms of patients’ demographic features, echocardiographic and angiographic findings both before and after procedure. Patients grouped as Group 1: native coarctation and Group 2: recoarctation developed after either surgery or balloon angioplasty. Findings of the cases’ were compared using paired and unpaired Student’s t, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results: Sixteen covered and 31 bare totally 47 balloon expandable stents were implanted in 45 patients. The mean follow up duration was 12.1±7.1, median 11 months (2-29 months). There was no procedure related death. In two patients two stents were implanted in tandem. While the coarctation of the aorta was native in 26 patients (functionally interrupted aortic arch in one), recoarctation was detected in 7 patients after surgery, in 8 patients after balloon angioplasty, in 4 patients both after surgery and balloon angioplasty. One patient had functionally interrupted aortic arch perforated with guide wire and then covered stent implanted. The mean age 12.2±5.9 years (5-33 years) and mean body mass index was 21±3.7 kg/m2 (14.8-31 kg/m2). Considering all cases, a statistically significant decrease in both the invasive and echocardiographic gradients (p<0.001 for both) and statistically significant increase in lesion diameter (p<0.001) were detected. The decrease in invasive and echocardiographic gradients and increase in lesion diameter is statistically significant in each group also (p<0.001, <0.001 and <0.001 for both groups, respectively). Before the procedure, the invasive gradient was significantly higher and the lesion diameter was significantly lower in group I than in group II (p=0.002 and p=0.005, respectively). Also the percentage of decrease in gradient and increase in diameter was statistically higher in group 1 than in group 2 (p=0.04 and p=0.04). Conclusion: Our early and short- term follow-up results indicate that stent implantation is safe and very effective in reducing coarctation gradient and increasing lesion diameter both in native coarctation and recoarctation.

11.Functional mitral regurgitation and papillary muscle dyssynchrony in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction
Ahmet Güler, Cihan Dündar, Kürşat Tigen
PMID: 21733790  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.113  Pages 450 - 455
In a dilated heart with impaired systolic functions, functional mitral regurgitation could be seen even in the presence of structurally normal mitral apparatus. A number of mechanisms play role in the development of functional mitral regurgitation. These are increased mitral tethering forces, reduction in closing forces and mechanical and electrical dyssynchrony. Papillary muscle dyssynchrony has also been shown to be related with functional mitral regurgitation. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is known to reduce the amount of functional mitral regurgitation in patients with left ventricular systolic failure although some may not respond to treatment with cardiac resynchronization therapy. Papillary muscle dyssynchrony may predict the response of cardiac resynchronization therapy on the regression of functional mitral regurgitation and may suggest the suitable therapeutic options, such as cardiac resynchronization therapy, mitral valve repair, coronary revascularization separately or in combination. In this review, the mechanisms of functional mitral regurgitation, papillary muscle dyssynchrony and its relationship with functional mitral regurgitation and the relationship of papillary muscle dyssynchrony with the improvement of functional mitral regurgitation after cardiac resynchronization therapy are focused.

12.Valve-sparing operation for ascending aorta aneurysm
Onur Gürer, Ahmet Kırbaş, Mehmet Salih Bilal
PMID: 21733789  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.114  Pages 456 - 458
Abstract | Full Text PDF

13.Two situations, which are difficult to differentiate from each other: Plagiarism and Duplication
Fatma Suna Kıraç
PMID: 21733788  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.115  Pages 459 - 460
Abstract | Full Text PDF

14.Embolic acute myocardial infarction treated by intracoronary catheter aspiration embolectomy in a patient with mechanical aortic valve prosthesis
Ali Buturak, Egemen Duygu, Ekrem Aksu, Orhan Alper Güngördük, Sami Özgül
PMID: 21733787  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.116  Pages 461 - 462
Abstract | Full Text PDF

15.Late bare-metal stent thrombosis in a patient with Crohn’s disease
Hüseyin Uğur Yazıcı, Alparslan Birdane, Aydın Nadiradze, Ahmet Ünalır
PMID: 21733786  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.117  Pages 462 - 464
Abstract | Full Text PDF

16.Augmentation of vessel narrowing by nitroglycerine in a case with myocardial bridge
Mine Durukan, Tolga Aksu, Ayşe Çolak, Ümit Güray
PMID: 21733785  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.118  Pages 464 - 466
Abstract | Full Text PDF

17.Effects of patient education and counseling about life style on quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease
Bekir Yılmaz Cingözbay, Zafer Işılak, Alptuğ Tokatlı, Mehmet Uzun
PMID: 21733784  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.119  Pages 467 - 468
Abstract | Full Text PDF

18.QT interval prolongation due to metronidazole administration
Cihan Altın, Süleyman Kanyılmaz, Selçuk Baysal, Bülent Özin
PMID: 21733783  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.120  Pages 468 - 469
Abstract | Full Text PDF

19.Thirty-six years with the same prosthetic mitral valve
Ahmet Akyel, Yakup Alsancak, Hilal Olgun, Murat Özdemir
PMID: 21733782  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.121  Pages 469 - 470
Abstract | Full Text PDF

20.Aviation medicine and cardiology
Muzaffer Çetingüç
PMID: 21745791  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.129  Pages 470 - 471
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21.Interview with Prof. Dr. Ali Ekmekçi by Prof. Dr. Yılmaz Nişancı
Yılmaz Nişancı
PMID: 21733776  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.127  Pages 472 - 476
Abstract | Full Text PDF

22.Slowly progressive conduction system disturbance in a patient with polymyositis
Francisco Femenía, Samuel Sclarovsky, Mauricio Arce, Jorge Palazzolo, Adrián Baranchuk
PMID: 21733781  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.122  Page E19
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23.A ring in the heart: an atrial septal aneurysm
Mehmet Doğan, Ahmet Göktuğ Ertem, Sadık Açıkel, Uğur Arslantaş, Ekrem Yeter, Ramazan Akdemir1
PMID: 21733780  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.123  Pages E19 - E20
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24.Diagnosis of a caseous mitral annular calcification
Abdullah Ulucay, Mehmet Faruk Aksoy, Erkan Şahin
PMID: 21733779  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.124  Page E20
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25.Supravalvular pulmonary stenosis due to hydatid cyst
Murat Gençaslan, Durmuş Yıldıray Şahin, Mevlu&776;t Koç, Mehmet Ballı, Mehmet Acıpayam, Murat Çaylı
PMID: 21733778  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.125  Page E21
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26.Witnessing a rare event: thrombus in transit after coronary angiography
Kamuran Tekin, Çağlar Emre Çağlıyan, Osman Karaarslan, Onur Kadir Uysal, Buğra Özkan, Murat Çaylı
PMID: 21733777  doi: 10.5152/akd.2011.126  Page E22
Abstract | Full Text PDF

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